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Nature Fauna

Tisza-tó - Lake Tisza

TISZA-LAKE NATURE TRAIL

Accessibility: on the main Road 33 at Tiszafüred and Poroszló (from Budapest direction, on the M3 motorway).

The river segment of Tisza between Tiszabábolna and Kisköre held numerous variety of wetland habitats before creating the Tisza-lake. The catchment area of the river was very extensive here with a lot of deadarms, owbow-lakes (Hordódi-Holt-Tisza, Nagymorotva, Szartos-morotva, Csapói-Holt-Tisza, Óhalászi-Holt-Tisza, Füredi-Holt-Tisza) accompanied with original soft-wood gallery forests. The depths of these deadarms exceeded the four metres in places. Wet meadows dominating the landscape - the drier variants of these meadows were even grazed near Poroszló - dissapeared almost enirely after banking up the resevoir. Only small patches of these alluvial and floodplain meadows remained in the area. The only hardwood gallery forest left is the Tiszádi-forest. Although after creating the Tisza-lake reservoir the diversity of the landcsape decreased but a unique valuable waterworld was born which recalls the atmosphere of the landcsape before canalisation.

The area (Valki-medence) lying north of the main Road 33 acrossing the reservoir, has been protected since the establishing of the Hortobágy National Park (1973). This region under the name of Tiszafüred Bird Reserve is Ramsar site of international importance and it got the status of national park. Three years later the most valuable part of the Poroszló basin, the area bordered by the River Tisza, the canal number V of Kis-Tisza and the Balázs-fok. It is also Ramsar site from 1996.With this supplementation two third of the whole reservoir - 7080 ha - is protected.

In the Bird Reserve there are strictly protected parts having higly sensitive wildlife, it can be visited only with special permission and with strict restrictions for reserach and checking purposes. To the exclusion of these areas we are planning to create nature trails with information boards and look-out towers to obtain an insight into the waterworld.

The landscape of the reservoir has been changing since the establishing of the Tisza-lake. Meadows, reed and catstail beds, huge open water surfaces and shallow open-water surfaces ocupied by reed-grass vegetation alternate due to this process. The atmosphere of the past romantic water-world is recalled by the deadarms ornamented with white and yellow flowers of the White Water-Lily, Yello Water-Lily and Floating Heart. On the reed-grass fields there are nests of Great Crested Grebes, Red-necked and Black-necked Grebes, Whiskered Terns and Black Terns. Moorhens are ambling on the big leaves of the reed-grass. Yellow carpets of Floating Heart are conquering large areas of several hectars recently, especially in the nooks of reed and catstail beds being less exposed to the waves. Waterchestnut being very rare in Europe occupies more and more areas here. Continuous fields of it are monotonous and under inhabited. Flowering Rush and Yellow Iris flower sporadicly at the edges of reed and catstail beds. In bigger continuous reeds heron-colonies form, beside the Purple Heron, Little Egret, Great White Egret, Spoonbill and Squacco Heron of these areas, the Little Bittern occurs at the edge of reeds. Where the water is shallow even the Ferruginous Duck breeds. Important protected nesting birds of the willow-poplar gallery forests are the Black Stork, Black Kite, Saker Falcon and the hunting Hobby Falcon. Specific elements of the Valk and Poroszló Basins are the dead tree-groups giving drying place for Cormorants, White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys. Besides Cormorants Grey Herons, Night Herons and Common Terns breed here. During migration of spring and autumn hundred thousands of geese, ducks dwelling on the Tisza-lake. They can be watched from the embankment.

Composition of the fish fauna used to be characteristic of running waters. Recently it has rearranged and mostly characteristic of standing waters. The various fish species can easily find suitable habitats. Out of the near fifty species there are several protected ones. Faunistic sensation of the area was the settlement of the beaver. In the gallery forests lying on the higher parts of the Tisza banks beside deers and foxes the wild cat is quite frequent. The highly protected otter lives hidden life but its traces are reveal him. The individuality of the Tisza-lake is that the sport fans of the south part, the bathers and the calm loving anglers of the north part along with the tourists coming to examine the flora and fauna can easily enjoy their hobby in the same time due to the fortunate hydrography of the lake.

Beside the water tourism the village, horse and bicycle tourism has been developing in the recent years in the region.